Sinopidae

Extinct family of mammals

Sinopidae
Temporal range: 56.0–39.7 Ma 22 Early to Late Eocene
Sinopa rapax 1.jpg
Skeleton of Sinopa major
Sinopa viverrina (Cope, 1874).jpg
lower jaw of Prototomus viverrinus
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Hyaenodonta
Family: Sinopidae
Solé, 2013[1]
Type genus
Sinopa
Leidy, 1871
Genera
Synonyms
list of synonyms:
  • Prototomidae (Morlo, 2014)[2]
  • Sinopaninae (Solé, 2013)
  • Sinopinae (Solé, 2014)[3]
  • Sinopainae (Solé, 2014)
  • Stypolophinae (Trouessart, 1885)[4]

Sinopidae ("swift foxes")[3] is a family of extinct predatory mammals from extinct order Hyaenodonta. Fossil remains of these mammals are known from early to middle Eocene deposits in North America, Europe and Asia.[5][6][7][8]

Classification and phylogeny

Taxonomy

  • Family: †Sinopidae (Solé, 2013)
    • Genus: †Acarictis (Gingerich & Deutsch, 1989)
      • Acarictis ryani (Gingerich & Deutsch, 1989)
    • (unranked): †Sinopa clade
      • Genus: †Prototomus (paraphyletic genus) (Cope, 1874)
        • Prototomus deimos (Gingerich & Deutsch, 1989)
        • Prototomus girardoti (Smith & Smith, 2001)
        • Prototomus martis (Gingerich & Deutsch, 1989)
        • Prototomus minimus (Smith & Smith, 2001)
        • Prototomus phobos (Gingerich & Deutsch, 1989)
        • Prototomus robustus (Matthew & Granger 1915)
        • Prototomus secundarius (Cope, 1875)
        • Prototomus viverrinus (Cope, 1874)
      • Genus: †Sinopa (Leidy, 1871)
        • Sinopa jilinia (Morlo, 2014)
        • Sinopa lania (Matthew, 1909)
        • Sinopa longipes (Peterson, 1919)
        • Sinopa major (Wortman, 1902)
        • Sinopa minor (Wortman, 1902)
        • Sinopa piercei (Bown, 1982)
        • Sinopa pungens (Cope, 1872)
        • Sinopa rapax (Leidy, 1871)
        • Sinopa sp. A [AMNH FM 11538] (Matthew, 1906)
      • Incertae sedis:
        • †Sinopidae sp. [FMNH PM 59529] (Tomiya, 2021)

Phylogeny

The phylogenetic relationships of family Sinopidae are shown in the following cladogram:[9][6][7][8][10]

 †Hyaenodonta 

Eoproviverra

Boualitomus

†Hyaenodonta sp. (Quarry L-41, Fayum, Egypt)

Lahimia

 †Sinopidae 
 †Sinopa 

Sinopa major

 ? 

Sinopa sp. A (AMNH FM 11538)

Sinopa jilinia

Sinopa longipes

Sinopa lania

Sinopa rapax

Sinopa minor

Sinopa pungens

Sinopa piercei

 ? 

†Sinopidae sp. (FMNH PM 59529)

Prototomus phobos

Prototomus secundarius

Prototomus viverrinus

Prototomus deimos

Prototomus

Prototomus martis

Prototomus robustus

Prototomus girardoti

Prototomus minimus

 †Acarictis 

Acarictis ryani

Arfiidae

Limnocyonidae

Hyaenodontoidea

Gazinocyon

Pyrocyon

Galecyon

 †Afro‑Arabian clade 

Indohyaenodontidae

Glibzegdouia

Parvavorodon

Koholiidae

Tritemnodon

Furodon

Kyawdawia

Paratritemnodon

Teratodontidae

Hyainailouroidea

Apterodontinae

Orienspterodon

Hyainailourinae

Hemipsalodon

 ? 

Ischnognathus

Akhnatenavus clade

Akhnatenavus

Paroxyaenini

"Pterodon" sp. (BC 15’08)

†Hyainailourinae sp. (UON 84-359)

†Hyainailourinae sp. C (DPC 9243 & DPC 10315)

†Hyainailourinae sp. D (DPC 6545)

†Hyainailourinae sp. A (DPC 6555)

"Pterodon" africanus

Parapterodon

"Pterodon" sp. (DPC 5036)

"Pterodon" phiomensis

Hyainailourini

Kerberos

"Pterodon" syrtos

Pterodon clade

Pterodontina

Falcatodon

Sectisodon

Exiguodon

Isohyaenodon zadoki

Isohyaenodon  (†Isohyaenodontina)

Isohyaenodon andrewsi

Sivapterodon

Hyainailouros bugtiensis

Hyainailouros napakensis

Hyainailouros

Hyainailouros sulzeri

†Hyainailourinae sp. (GSN AD 100’96)

Simbakubwa

Leakitheriini

Megistotherium

Mlanyama

Metapterodontini

Pakakali'

Prionogalidae

Lahimia clade
Sinopa clade
Arfia clade
Galecyon clade
Indohyaenodon clade
Tritemnodon clade
Kyawdawia clade

References

  1. ^ Floréal Solé (2013). "New proviverrine genus from the Early Eocene of Europe and the first phylogeny of Late Palaeocene–Middle Eocene hyaenodontidans (Mammalia)". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 11 (4): 375–398. doi:10.1080/14772019.2012.686927. S2CID 84734979.
  2. ^ Michael Morlo; Katharina Bastl; Wu Wenhao; Stephan F. K. Schaal (2014). "The first species of Sinopa (Hyaenodontida, Mammalia) from outside of North America: implications for the history of the genus in the Eocene of Asia and North America". Palaeontology. 57 (1): 111–125. doi:10.1111/pala.12052. S2CID 129633205.
  3. ^ a b Floréal Solé; Jocelyn Falconnet; Laurent Yves (2014). "New proviverrines (Hyaenodontida) from the early Eocene of Europe; phylogeny and ecological evolution of the Proviverrinae". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 171 (4): 878–917. doi:10.1111/zoj.12155.
  4. ^ Trouessart, E. L. (1885.) "Note sur le classification des Analgésiens et diagnoses d'espèces et de genres nouveaux." Bulletin de la Société d'études scientifiques d'Angers, 14, 46–89. [Publ. February, 1885. for year 1884.]
  5. ^ Solé, F.; Lhuillier, J.; Adaci, M.; Bensalah, M.; Mahboubi, M.; Tabuce, R. (2013). "The hyaenodontidans from the Gour Lazib area (?Early Eocene, Algeria): implications concerning the systematics and the origin of the Hyainailourinae and Teratodontinae". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 12 (3): 303–322. doi:10.1080/14772019.2013.795196. S2CID 84475034.
  6. ^ a b Borths, Matthew R.; Stevens, Nancy J. (2017). "Deciduous dentition and dental eruption of Hyainailouroidea (Hyaenodonta, "Creodonta," Placentalia, Mammalia)". Palaeontologia Electronica. 20 (3): 55A. doi:10.26879/776.
  7. ^ a b Matthew R. Borths; Nancy J. Stevens (2019). "Simbakubwa kutokaafrika, gen. et sp. nov. (Hyainailourinae, Hyaenodonta, 'Creodonta,' Mammalia), a gigantic carnivore from the earliest Miocene of Kenya". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 39 (1): e1570222. doi:10.1080/02724634.2019.1570222. S2CID 145972918.
  8. ^ a b Floréal Solé; Bernard Marandat; Fabrice Lihoreau (2020). "The hyaenodonts (Mammalia) from the French locality of Aumelas (Hérault), with possible new representatives from the late Ypresian". Geodiversitas. 42 (13): 185–214. doi:10.5252/geodiversitas2020v42a13. S2CID 219585388.
  9. ^ G. F. Gunnell (1998.) "Creodonta". In C. M. Janis, K. M. Scott, and L. L. Jacobs (eds.), "Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America, Volume 1: Terrestrial Carnivores, Ungulates, and Ungulate like Mammals", Cambridge University Press, 703 pages Sinopidae
  10. ^ Solé, F.; Morlo, M.; Schaal, T.; Lehmann, T. (2021). "New hyaenodonts (Mammalia) from the late Ypresian locality of Prémontré (France) support a radiation of the hyaenodonts in Europe already at the end of the early Eocene". Geobios. 66–67: 119–141. doi:10.1016/j.geobios.2021.02.004. S2CID 234848856.
  • v
  • t
  • e
Superfamily:
Hyaenodontoidea
Family:
Hyaenodontidae
  • Boritia
  • Neosinopa
  • Praecodens
  • Preregidens
  • Protoproviverra
Cynohyaenodon/Quercytherium
clade
Eurotherium clade
Leonhardtina clade
  • Leonhardtina
Matthodon clade
  • Matthodon
Oxyaenoides clade
Subfamily:
†Oxyaenoidinae
  • Oxyaenoides
Subfamily:
Hyaenodontinae
Tribe:
†Epipterodontini
  • Epipterodon
  • Immanopterodon
Tribe:
Hyaenodontini
Family:
Proviverridae
  • Minimovellentodon
  • Morlodon
  • Parvagula
Allopterodon/Proviverra clade
†Afro‑Arabian
clade
  • Furodon
  • Paratritemnodon
  • Parvavorodon
Indohyaenodon
clade
  • Glibzegdouia
Kyawdawia clade
  • Kyawdawia
Tritemnodon
clade
Family:
†Koholiidae
  • Koholia
Superfamily:
Hyainailouroidea
(paraphyletic superfamily)
Family:
Hyainailouridae
(paraphyletic family)
Subfamily:
Apterodontinae
Subfamily:
Hyainailourinae
(paraphyletic subfamily)
Akhnatenavus
clade
Subtribe:
Isohyaenodontina
(polyphyletic subtribe)
Pterodon
clade
  • Kerberos
Subtribe:
†Pterodontina
  • Pterodon
  • "Pterodon" syrtos
  • "Pterodon" africanus
  • "Pterodon" phiomensis
  • "Pterodon" sp. (DPC 5036)
Tribe:
†Leakitheriini
  • Leakitherium
Tribe:
†Paroxyaenini
  • Paroxyaena
  • "Pterodon" sp. (BC 15’08)
  • †Hyainailourinae sp. (GSN AD 100’96)
  • †Hyainailourinae sp. (UON 84-359)
  • †Hyainailourinae sp. A (DPC 6555)
  • †Hyainailourinae sp. C (DPC 9243 & DPC 10315)
  • †Hyainailourinae sp. D (DPC 6545)
Family:
†Prionogalidae
  • Namasector
  • Prionogale
  • Thereutherium
Family:
Teratodontidae
Subfamily:
Teratodontinae
Tribe:
Dissopsalini
Tribe:
†Teratodontini
  • Teratodon
  • †Teratodontinae sp. (BC 2’08)
  • †Teratodontinae sp. (CBI-1-614)
other
representatives
  • Eoproviverra
  • Gazinocyon
  • Pyrocyon
Arfia clade
Family:
†Arfiidae
  • Arfia
Galecyon clade
Lahimia clade
  • †Hyaenodonta sp. (Quarry L-41, Fayum, Egypt)
Family:
Limnocyonidae
  • "Thinocyon" sichowensis
Family:
†Sinopidae
  • Acarictis
Sinopa clade
  • †Sinopidae sp. (FMNH PM 59529)
ichnotaxa
of Hyaenodonta
  • Creodontipus
  • Dischidodacylus
  • Sarcotherichnus
  • Zanclonychopus
Ichnofamily:
†Sarjeantipodidae
  • Hyaenodontipus
  • Quiritipes
  • Sarjeantipes